Causes of World War 1 -The 1911 Second Moroccan Crisis / Agadir Crisis

Imperialism – Competition for overseas territory after 1905: The Second Moroccan Crisis/ Agadir Crisis (1911)
Let’s now focus on the Second Moroccan Crisis

In 1908 France supported the rise of a new pro-French Sultan in Morocco.

The new Sultan of Morocco replaced the former Sultan who was against France’s influence in Morocco.

In 1911 there was a local uprising against the new Sultan in Morocco and France sent some forces to a Moroccan city called Fez.


Germany informed the French that interference in Moroccan issues was against the Algecirus agreement.

Germany had hopes that Britain would not support France on this issue and hence weakening the alliance between France and Britain.

Germany was not happy with the small size of the German Empire compared with the British Empire and the French Empire.


Germany was suspecting that France was colonizing Morocco against the Algecirus agreement.

France promised to give Germany part of the French Empire in Africa in exchange for France making Morocco her protectorate.

Since France was delaying in deciding which part was to be given to Germany Kaiser William II then sent the gunboat SMS Panther to the Agadir in the pretext of protecting Germans and Germany’s possessions.


Germany demanded compensation for the rise of French influence in Morocco or Agadir was to be bombed by Germany.

The character and attitude of Kaiser William II were seen as aggressive and promoting war.

Britain was not happy with Germany occupying the Agadir port since the Kaiser was likely to establish a naval base and interrupt Britain’s trade routes.

Britain had to support France since her trade routes and interests were being threatened by the Kaiser


A war was about to happen as the French and British were on high alert to fight Germany if the Germans attacked.


David Lloyd George and Edward Grey of Britain were highly against the bullying of France by Germany.

The warlike speech by Lloyd George aroused nationalistic feelings in both Germany and France.

After diplomatic agreements, Germany agreed to recognize Morocco as France’s protectorate whilst Germany was given part of the French Congo to be part of the German Kamerun……..

Germany lost all her chances to destroy the British-France Alliance.

The Kaiser of Germany hoped to gain Britain’s support by showing how France violated the Algeciras conference.

However, By being aggressive and warlike Germany threatened Britain’s interests in North Africa……

The relations between Germany and Britain became sourer for Germany was seen as a bully with the Kaiser’s gunboat Panther…..

This led to the rise of British nationalism and anti-German feelings…..


It also aroused Germany’s public opinion against the humiliation of Germany in the future.

Germany’s loss of Morocco was criticized by the German nationalists since the area Germany got was seen as less profitable than Morocco which was given to France and Spain


Also, the Germans were humiliated that Britain was ready to fight Germany whilst Germany was not yet ready for war in 1911


The Entente Cordiale was strengthened since Britain supported her ally France.

Russia also supported the French occupation of Morocco


French politicians were against a future humiliation by Germany through diplomacy.


In the future, they were to choose the use of force over the use of diplomacy

After this crisis, the armaments race increased since the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente were ready for an unavoidable war

The British navy started making reforms of using oil from the Middle East which was faster than the use of coal.

France and Britain became more determined to defeat Germany in a future war

The Second Moroccan Crisis, like the First Moroccan Crisis, destroyed chances of peace in Europe.

There were high chances of war to break out in 1905 as was in 1911.

From 1911 onwards a European war was now unavoidable
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